Currying in JavaScript

What is “Currying” in JavaScript?

Currying is a functional programming technique in JavaScript that allows you to transform a function that takes multiple arguments into a series of unary (single-argument) functions.

This powerful technique provides better flexibility and readability when working with functions.

In this article, we will delve deep into JavaScript currying, exploring its concept, implementation, use cases, and best practices.

Table of Contents #

Introduction to Currying

Currying is a functional programming concept that transforms a function taking multiple arguments into a sequence of unary functions.

In other words, it breaks down a function that expects n arguments into n functions that each take a single argument. This technique is named after “Haskell Curry“, an American mathematician and logician.

The curried function is called with one argument at a time, and after each argument, it returns a new function that expects the next argument. This process continues until all the arguments are passed, and the final result is produced.

How Currying Works

Consider a basic addition function:

function add(a, b, c) {
    return a + b + c;

const result = add(2, 3, 4); // Result: 9

With currying, the same functionality can be achieved in a more modular and flexible way:

function add(a) {
    return function (b) {
        return function (c) {
            return a + b + c;

// Shorthand with Arrow function
// const add = (a) => (b) => (c) => a + b + c;

const curriedAdd = add(2)(3)(4); // Result: 9

Here, `add` is a curried function that takes one argument at a time, returning a new function that takes the next argument, and so on.

Implementing Currying in JavaScript

You can create curried functions in JavaScript using manual implementation or helper libraries.

Below is a manual implementation of currying:

function curry(fn) {
    return function curried(...args) {
        if (args.length >= fn.length) {
            return fn(...args);
        } else {
            return function (...nextArgs) {
                return curried(...args, ...nextArgs);

This curry function takes another function fn and returns a curried version of it.

Use Cases for Currying

Currying is valuable in various scenarios, including:

  1. Partial Application: Curried functions can be partially applied, which means you can provide some arguments upfront and defer the rest until later. This is particularly useful when you want to reuse a function with certain arguments fixed.
  2. Composition: Currying is essential for function composition, where you can combine multiple functions to create a new function.
  3. Dynamic Function Generation: Currying can generate functions dynamically, depending on the application’s specific needs.

Benefits of Currying

  1. Modularity: Curried functions are more modular and easier to reuse in different contexts.
  2. Partial Application: You can partially apply curried functions, making them versatile for various use cases.
  3. Function Composition: Currying facilitates function composition, allowing you to create complex functions by combining simpler ones.
  4. Readability: Code that uses curried functions tends to be more readable, as it breaks down complex operations into smaller, understandable pieces.

Common Mistakes and Pitfalls

  1. Overly Complex Currying: Avoid currying every function. Use it where it makes sense, and keep your codebase manageable.
  2. Performance: Currying involves creating new functions at each step, which may have a minor impact on performance. Use currying judiciously, especially in performance-critical applications.

Best Practices for Using Currying

  1. Keep It Simple: Don’t overcomplicate your code with unnecessary currying. Use it where it simplifies your logic and makes your code more readable.
  2. Consider Utility Functions: Libraries like Lodash provide utility functions for currying. Consider using them to avoid reinventing the wheel.

Library Support and Currying Utilities

Many JavaScript libraries and utilities support currying or provide helper functions for creating curried functions. Lodash, Ramda are popular choices that offer these utilities.


JavaScript currying is a valuable technique that promotes modularity, reusability, and code readability.

By breaking down functions into smaller, unary functions, you can create more flexible and maintainable code

While currying may not be suitable for every situation, understanding when and how to use it can significantly enhance your JavaScript programming skills and improve the quality of your code.