How to Pass PHP Variables By Reference?

In PHP, when you pass variables to functions, they are typically passed by value, which means a copy of the variable's value is created within the function.

However, there are situations where you may want to pass variables by reference, which allows you to manipulate the original variable directly from within the function.

In this article, we'll explore how to pass PHP variables by reference and understand when and why you might want to use this approach.

Understanding Pass by Reference

By default, when you pass a variable to a function in PHP, a copy of the variable's value is created within the function's local scope.

Any changes made to the variable within the function do not affect the original variable in the calling code. This is known as "pass by value."

However, you can explicitly pass variables by reference, which means that the function operates directly on the original variable, and any changes are reflected outside the function.

To pass a variable by reference, you use the & symbol before the variable in both the function declaration and the function call.

Syntax for Passing by Reference

To pass a variable by reference, follow this syntax:

function myFunction(&$variable) {
    // Function logic that can modify $variable directly

// Calling the function

In this example, the & symbol before $variable in the function definition indicates that $variable is passed by reference.

Example: Modifying a Variable by Reference

Let's look at an example to understand how passing by reference works and why it can be useful:

function incrementByReference(&$number) {

$myNumber = 5;


echo "Original number: " . $myNumber;


Original number: 6
  1. In this example, the function incrementByReference(&$number) takes a variable $number by reference and increments it directly within the function.
  2. When we call the function with $myNumber, it modifies the original variable, and we see the updated value outside the function.

When to Use Pass by Reference

Passing variables by reference is not something you'll use in every PHP function, and it should be used judiciously. Here are some scenarios where passing by reference can be beneficial:

  1. Modifying Original Data: If you need to make changes to the original data within a function, passing by reference is necessary. For example, when updating a global variable or a large array, passing by reference avoids unnecessary copying.

  2. Efficiency: When dealing with large data structures, passing by reference can be more efficient, as it avoids creating duplicate copies of data.

  3. Multiple Return Values: Functions can return multiple values by modifying variables passed by reference. This can be helpful when you want to return more than one result from a function.

  4. Resource Management: When working with PHP resources like database connections or file handles, you often need to pass these by reference to manage them correctly.

Caution: Side Effects

While passing variables by reference can be powerful, it can also lead to unexpected side effects.

Modifying a variable by reference can make your code less predictable, and debugging can become challenging.

Therefore, it's essential to use pass by reference when it's necessary and avoid it when it's not.

Make sure to document the functions that use pass by reference to indicate their special behavior.


Passing PHP variables by reference allows you to directly manipulate the original variables within a function. This can be helpful in various scenarios, such as modifying original data, improving efficiency, returning multiple values, or managing resources. However, you should use this technique judiciously and document functions that employ pass by reference to ensure the predictability and maintainability of your code.