Python Global Keyword: A Deep Dive

In Python, the global keyword is a powerful tool that allows you to work with global variables within functions.

It signals to the interpreter that a variable declared within a function should refer to the global variable of the same name, rather than creating a new local variable.

This guide will explore the syntax, usage, and considerations associated with the global keyword in Python.

Declaring Global Variables:

In Python, a variable declared outside any function or block of code is considered a global variable.

Global variables can be accessed and modified from any part of the code.

# Global variable
global_variable = 10

def example_function():
    # Accessing the global variable
    print("Global variable:", global_variable)


In this example, global_variable is a global variable, and the function example_function can access it without any special keywords.

Using the Global Keyword:

When you want to modify the value of a global variable within a function, you need to use the global keyword to indicate that you are referring to the global variable, not creating a new local variable.

Syntax of the Global Keyword:

global variable_name

Example of Using the Global Keyword:

# Modifying a global variable within a function
global_variable = 10

def modify_global_variable():
    # Using the global keyword to modify the global variable
    global global_variable
    global_variable = 20
    print("Modified global variable:", global_variable)

print("Global variable outside the function:", global_variable)

The output will be:

Modified global variable: 20
Global variable outside the function: 20

In this example, the modify_global_variable function uses the global keyword to modify the value of the global variable global_variable.

Considerations and Best Practices:

  1. Avoid Excessive Use of Global Variables: While global variables offer flexibility, it's generally advisable to limit their use. Excessive reliance on global variables can make code harder to understand and maintain.

  2. Use Descriptive Variable Names: When using global variables, choose descriptive and unique names to avoid naming conflicts and enhance code readability.

  3. Consider Alternatives: In some cases, using function parameters or returning values from functions might be a cleaner and more modular approach than relying heavily on global variables.

  4. Be Mindful of Scope: Understand the scope of your variables. Variables declared within a function without the global keyword are local to that function and do not affect global variables with the same name.

Advanced Usage: Nested Functions and Closures:

The global keyword is also relevant when working with nested functions and closures, where variables from outer functions can be accessed and modified within inner functions.

# Using global keyword in nested functions
def outer_function():
    outer_variable = 10

    def inner_function():
        # Using the global keyword to access the outer variable
        global outer_variable
        outer_variable = 20
        print("Inner function - outer variable:", outer_variable)

    print("Outer function - outer variable:", outer_variable)


The output will be:

Inner function - outer variable: 20
Outer function - outer variable: 20

In this example, the inner_function accesses the outer_variable from the outer function using the global keyword.


The global keyword in Python plays a crucial role in managing global variables within functions.

By using the global keyword, you can indicate whether a variable declared within a function refers to a global variable with the same name.

While global variables offer flexibility, it's essential to use them judiciously and consider alternative approaches to maintain clean, readable, and modular code.

Understanding the scope and usage of the global keyword will empower you to navigate the complexities of variable access and modification in Python. Happy coding!